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RES 141: Principles of Respiratory Care: Assignments

Find books, journal and magazine articles on people who have made a contribution to science and respiratory care as well as information on lung diseases.

Term Paper Guidelines





From the list below, choose the person/topic you will be researching and submit it to me, in writing, by November 18, 2019.  (Please note this is a Mon.) Topics are on a “first come first served basis.” (No two people may research the same person.)

Virginia Apgar


Amedeo Avogadro

David Bernoulli

Thomas Beddoes

Forest M. Bird 

Emily Bissell

Joseph Black

Elizabeth Blackwell

Christian Bohr

Robert Boyle

Robert Brown

Clive O. Callender

Jacques-Alexander Cesar Charles

John Dalton

Charles Drew

John Haven Emerson


Gabriel David Fahrenheit

Adoloph Fick

Alexander Fleming

John Fothergill


Helene D. Gayle

Thomas Graham

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac

John Scott Haldane

Alice Hamilton

William Harvey

Lawrence J. Henderson and KA Hasselbach


John Hutchinson

Robert Koch

Elizabeth Kubler-Ross

Rene Laennec

Susan La Flesche Picotte

Pierre-Simon de Laplace

Antoine Lavoisier

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

Carl von Linde

Joseph Lister

Heinrich Magnus

Mary Eliza Mahoney

William Osler

Blaise Pascal


Edward Pfluger

Linus Pauling

Jean L.M. Poiseuille

Joseph Priestley

Wilhelm Konrod Roentge

Carl Scheele

Mary Grant Seacole

Michael Servetus

Lazzaro Spallazani

George Stahl

Mabel K. Staupers

Evangelista Torricelli

Helen Brooke Taussig

Giovanni Venturi

Andreas Vesalius

Leonardo da Vinci

Semmel Weiss

Louis Thompkins Wright


  • be word processed, double-spaced.
  • be spell checked.
  • be grammar checked.
  • be proof read.
  • be at least four pages and no longer than 10 pages in length. This does not include the title and reference pages or pictures.
  • contain at least four references. None can be a web site. (Keep in mind, just because you obtained a reference on-line, i.e. from the library, does not make it a web site.)
  • be handed in by Nov 19th at 8:00 am. See the Term Paper information under grading in the course outline – page 3.

Keep in mind that your paper should not be a series of quotes. You need to put the information into your own words.


Choose the grade you wish by keeping in mind the following point system that will be used to grade your paper:

  • -100 points if plagiarized or if work is not your own (See the course outline page 4 under Academic Integrity for additional information.) If there is any doubt that the paper is not your own, you will be asked to produce the drafts of the paper. You must save your draft copies until the paper has been returned to you. If you cannot produce draft copies of your work, and there is a question the work is not your own, you will earn a grade of 0 for the assignment.
  • -100 points if your paper is just a series of quotes.
  • +10 proper length
  • +5 proper # of resources (none of which are web sites)
  • +5 proper use of references within paper
  • +10 no grammar or spelling errors
  • +25 historical perspective of topic
  • +10 writing style
  • +5 hand in copies of all your reference materials
  • +5 hand in copies of all your corrected drafts
  • +10 your conclusions are included
  • +10 follow the AARC guidelines for references (bibliography)
  • +2.5 choose your topic by October 10th and not change it after that
  • +2.5 attend mandatory library session



  • a history of the person.
  • the impact that person's discovery had on the field of Respiratory Therapy. (This is where you draw a conclusion of what you think they did to help the field. This should be a well-developed paragraph! And it should be very obvious to find!)



The paper should be referenced in the Vancouver Style. This is the format utilized in medical literature. On pages 9-15 of the course outline are examples of how to reference specific types of resources.  Please pay special attention to capital and lowercase letters and punctuation. For more information about referencing in this manner, and more specific examples, go to


I am available until Friday, Nov 9th if you need assistance with your papers. I will read critique and correct your drafts, AFTER you have gone to the writing center. After Nov. 9th, I will not review papers even during scheduled office hours.  I will provide assistance with references. This can be accomplished in small groups of individually. If you wish to work in a small group, one person needs to bring their paper and their resources so that we are utilizing real life examples. DON'T WAIT UNTIL THE LAST MINUTE!!!


The Most Frequently Asked Question About References – What should I reference?

  • Direct quotes (if you don’t, this is plagiarism)
  • Statistics
  • Another inventor, author, researcher’s research
  • Tables or graphs taken from somewhere other than your own personal research or imagination
  • Pictures or photos, other than ones you personally took (if you don’t, this is plagiarism)
  • Dates
  • Information someone might want to investigate further (i.e. books published, other articles published, other research that supports your topic…)
  • When in doubt, ask me.


  • If you are using a book – copy only the pages that you referenced in your paper as well as the title page with the publication date, publisher, and that type of information.
  • If you are using a source that you accessed on-line, but it is also published in paper, i.e. journal, dictionary, encyclopedia, then follow the reference for what it is – dictionary, journal. DO NOT USE the on-line reference example.
  • No web sites can be used as a reference. You must have four references. You may use a web site to support your topic, but it will not be “counted” as a reference. Accessing a journal, dictionary, etc. in an electronic format is not the same as a web site. You may find a picture of your person on-line, but remember to state where you obtained it from and remember it is not “counted” as a reference.
  • If I have read your draft, or the writing center has, please hand it in with your final paper.






References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in parentheses. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure.

Use the style of the examples below, which are based on the formats used by the NLM in Index Medicus. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus. Consult the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus, published annually as a separate publication by the library and as a list in the January issue of Index Medicus. The list can also be obtained through the library's web site (

Avoid using abstracts as references. References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as "in press" or "forthcoming"; authors should obtain written permission to cite such papers as well as verification that they have been accepted for publication. Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as "unpublished observations" with written permission from the source.

Avoid citing a "personal communication" unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. For scientific articles, authors should obtain written permission and confirmation of accuracy from the source of a personal communication.

The references must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents. The Uniform Requirements style (the Vancouver style) is based largely on an ANSI standard style adapted by the NLM for its databases. Notes have been added where Vancouver style differs from the style now used by NLM.


Articles in journals

1. Standard journal article



List the first six authors followed by et al. (Note: NLM now lists up through 25 authors; if there are more than 25 authors, NLM lists the first 24, then the last author, then et al.)


Vega KJ, Pina I, Krevsky B. Heart transplantation is associated with an increased risk for pancreatobiliary disease. Ann Intern Med 1996 Jun 1;124 (11):980-3.


As an option, if a journal carries continuous pagination throughout a volume (as many medical journals do) the month and issue number may be omitted.

(Note: For consistency, the option is used throughout the examples in Uniform Requirements. NLM does not use the option.)


Vega KJ, Pina I, Krevsky B. Heart transplantation is associated with an increased risk for pancreatobiliary disease. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:980-3.


More than six authors:


Parkin DM, Clayton D, Black RJ, Masuyer E, Friedl HP, Ivanov E, et al. Childhood leukaemia in Europe after Chernobyl: 5 year follow-up. Br J Cancer 1996;73:1006- 12.

2. Organization as author



The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Clinical exercise stress testing. Safety and performance guidelines. Med J Aust 1996; 164: 282-4.

3. No author given



Cancer in South Africa [editorial]. S Afr Med J 1994;84:15.



4. Article not in English (Note: NLM translates the title to English, encloses the translation in square brackets, and adds an abbreviated language designator.)



Ryder TE, Haukeland EA, Solhaug JH. Bilateral infrapatellar seneruptur hostidligere frisk kvinne. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 1996;116:41-2.

5. Volume with supplement



Shen HM, Zhang QF. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102 Suppl 1:275-82.

6. Issue with supplement



Payne DK, Sullivan MD, Massie MJ. Women's psychological reactions to breast cancer. Semin Oncol 1996;23(1 Suppl 2):89-97.


7. Volume with part



Ozben T, Nacitarhan S, Tuncer N. Plasma and urine sialic acid in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann Clin Biochem 1995;32(Pt 3):303-6.

8. Issue with part



Poole GH, Mills SM. One hundred consecutive cases of flap lacerations of the leg in ageing patients. N Z Med J 1994;107(986 Pt 1):377-8.

9. Issue with no volume



Turan I, Wredmark T, Fellander-Tsai L. Arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Orthop 1995;(320):110-4.

10. No issue or volume



Browell DA, Lennard TW. Immunologic status of the cancer patient and the effects of blood transfusion on antitumor responses. Curr Opin Gen Surg 1993:325-33.

11. Pagination in Roman numerals



Fisher GA, Sikic BI. Drug resistance in clinical oncology and hematology. Introduction. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 1995 Apr;9(2):xi-xii.

12. Type of article indicated as needed



Enzensberger W, Fischer PA. Metronome in Parkinson's disease [letter]. Lancet 1996;347:1337. Clement J, De Bock R. Hematological complications of hantavirus nephropathy (HVN) [abstract]. Kidney Int 1992;42:1285.

13. Article containing retraction



Garey CE, Schwarzman AL, Rise ML, Seyfried TN. Ceruloplasmin gene defect associated with epilepsy in EL mice [retraction of Garey CE, Schwarzman AL, Rise ML, Seyfried TN. In: Nat Genet 1994;6:426-31]. Nat Genet 1995;11:104.

14. Article retracted



Liou GI, Wang M, Matragoon S. Precocious IRBP gene expression during mouse development [retracted in Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1994;35:3127]. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1994;35:1083-8.

15. Article with published erratum



Hamlin JA, Kahn AM. Herniography in symptomatic patients following inguinal hernia repair [published erratum appears in West J Med 1995;162:278]. West J Med 1995;162:28-31.



Books and other monographs


16. Personal author(s)



Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. 2nd ed. Albany (NY): Delmar Publishers; 1996.

17. Editor(s), compiler(s) as author



Norman IJ, Redfern SJ, editors. Mental health care for elderly people. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996.

18. Organization as author and publisher



Institute of Medicine (US). Looking at the future of the Medicaid program. Washington: The Institute; 1992.

19. Chapter in a book



Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, editors. Hypertension: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995. p. 465-78.


20. Conference proceedings



Kimura J, Shibasaki H, editors. Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of EMG and Clinical Neurophysiology; 1995 Oct 15-19; Kyoto, Japan. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996.

21. Conference paper



Bengtsson S, Solheim BG. Enforcement of data protection, privacy and security in medical informatics. In: Lun KC, Degoulet P, Piemme TE, Rienhoff O, editors. MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics; 1992 Sep 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland. Amsterdam: North-Holland; 1992. p. 1561-5.

22. Scientific or technical report


Issued by funding/sponsoring agency:



Smith P, Golladay K. Payment for durable medical equipment billed during skilled nursing facility stays. Final report. Dallas (TX): Dept. of Health and Human Services (US), Office of Evaluation and Inspections; 1994 Oct. Report No.: HHSIGOEI69200860.

Issued by performing agency:



Field MJ, Tranquada RE, Feasley JC, editors. Health services research: work force and educational issues. Washington: National Academy Press; 1995. Contract No.: AHCPR282942008. Sponsored by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.

23. Dissertation



Kaplan SJ. Post-hospital home health care: the elderly's access and utilization [dissertation]. St. Louis (MO): Washington Univ.; 1995.

24. Patent



Larsen CE, Trip R, Johnson CR, inventors; Novoste Corporation, assignee. Methods for procedures related to the electrophysiology of the heart. US patent 5,529,067. 1995 Jun 25.

Other published material


25. Newspaper article



Lee G. Hospitalizations tied to ozone pollution: study estimates 50,000 admissions annually. The Washington Post 1996 Jun 21;Sect. A:3 (col. 5).

26. Audiovisual material



HIV+/AIDS: the facts and the future [videocassette]. St. Louis (MO): Mosby-Year Book; 1995.

27. Legal material


Public law:



Preventive Health Amendments of 1993, Pub. L. No. 103-183, 107 Stat. 2226 (Dec. 14, 1993).

Unenacted bill:



Medical Records Confidentiality Act of 1995, S. 1360, 104th Cong., 1st Sess. (1995).

Code of Federal Regulations:



Informed Consent, 42 C.F.R. Sect. 441.257 (1995).




Increased Drug Abuse: the Impact on the Nation's Emergency Rooms: Hearings Before the Subcomm. on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations of the House Comm. on Government Operations, 103rd Cong., 1st Sess. (May 26, 1993).

28. Map



North Carolina. Tuberculosis rates per 100,000 population, 1990 [demographic map]. Raleigh: North Carolina Dept. of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Div. of Epidemiology; 1991.


29. Book of the Bible



The Holy Bible. King James version. Grand Rapids (MI): Zondervan Publishing House; 1995. Ruth 3:1-18.

30. Dictionary and similar references



Stedman's medical dictionary. 26th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1995. Apraxia; p. 119-20.

31. Classical material



The Winter's Tale: act 5, scene 1, lines 13-16. The complete works of William Shakespeare. London: Rex; 1973.

Unpublished material


32. In press



Leshner AI. Molecular mechanisms of cocaine addiction. N Engl J Med. In press 1996.

Electronic material


33. Journal article in electronic format



Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 1995 Jan-Mar [cited 1996 Jun 5];1(1):[24 screens]. Available from: URL:


Pilten C, Edhl CA. Lung Recruitment – a nurse and/or physician task. Intensive and critical care nursing [serial on the Internet]. 2009 Feb [cited 2009 Feb 14]; 25(1): [4 p.]. Avaialable from:

34. Monograph in electronic format



CDI, clinical dermatology illustrated [monograph on CD-ROM]. Reeves JRT, Maibach H. CMEA Multimedia Group, producers. 2nd ed. Version 2.0. San Diego: CMEA; 1995.

35. Computer file



Hemodynamics III: the ups and downs of hemodynamics [computer program]. Version 2.2. Orlando (FL): Computerized Educational Systems; 1993.



36. Electronic Copy of Newspaper or magazine



Biotech Week staff. Research on lung diease therapy discussed by scientists at Children’s Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine. Bio Week. [Internet] 2009 Jan 7; [cited 2009 Feb 12] Sect. A:2 (col. 4). Available from:

37. Website


example [homepage on the Internet]. Texas: American Association for Respiratory Care; c2001-01 [updated 2009 Feb 20; cited 2009 Feb 21]. Available from:


Special note: c2000-01 indicates that this particular website was established in the years 2000 and 2001. You must indicate when the website was last updated and when you looked at the website.

Abstract Guidelines


RSP  274 Abstract Assignment

Abstract Guidelines

            You must choose two research studies from a refereed medical journal of your choice. (Advance and AARTimes are not considered medical journals but Respiratory Care is.) One research study must cover adult mechanical ventilation in critical care and one study must utilize PFTs in the data collection.  Meta analysis articles and review articles do not meet the guidelines of this assignment, so please do not pick them. Students may not choose to review the same article. No pediatric/neonatal MAV articles will be accepted.

            The studies must have been published within the last 5 years and be at least 4 pages long, not including the reference pages. If you choose an on-line article, look at the information as to where it was originally published. It will indicate the number of pages. Remember computer pages are not the same as journal pages! When in doubt, ask me.

            Abstracts must be approved no later than Oct 20th. The article’s title and where published and the date it was published must be clearly written along with your name on the appropriate “accepted” paper to avoid duplication of articles by students. It is YOUR responsibility to review the list to ensure that the article has not already been chosen.

In order to receive credit for the abstracts, they must:

  • be approved by me.
  • be word processed, double-spaced.
  • be spell checked.
  • be grammar checked.
  • proof read.
  • include a copy of the original article.
  • have all the pages stapled together.
  • be handed in by Thursday, November 17th at 9:30 am. If they are not handed at this time, they are considered late and 5 points will be deducted. Late abstracts will have 5 points deducted for each additional day they are late.

            Keep in mind that an abstract is a brief synopsis of what was covered within the article. Key points/conclusions should be noted. It should not be longer than a page and a half. (HINT - Do not copy the abstract that accompanies the article. This is plagiarism. If you just paraphrase the abstract that is plagiarism too.)

            Choose the grade you wish by keeping in mind the following point system that will be used to grade your abstracts. The abstract grades will be averaged together:

-100 points if plagiarized or if work is not your own. (See the course outline pages 3-4 under Academic Integrity for additional information.)

  • Concisely describes article including:
    • +5 Objective of the study
    • +15 Methods
    • +15 Results
    • +10 Conclusion
  • +5 includes article
  • +5 notes article title in abstract
  • +5 notes authors of article
  • +5 article approved by Oct 20th      
  • +2.5 notes where article appeared
  • +2.5 notes when article appeared
  • +10 writing style
  • +5 correct length
  • +10 no grammar or spelling errors
  • +5 includes copies of drafts
  • -10 from the abstract average if you do not attend the final exam time

I am available until Nov 3rd if you need assistance with your abstracts. I will read critique and correct your drafts, AFTER you have gone to the writing center. After Nov. 3rd, I will not review abstracts even during scheduled office hours.  DON'T WAIT UNTIL THE LAST MINUTE!!!

Examples of abstracts can be found at the beginning of any journal article found in Respiratory Care. Read several from research articles you will not be using to see a variety of potential abstract formats. Choose the format that is easiest for you. I am not requiring a specific format. 

Cardiopulmonary Term Paper

RSP 121 Research Paper

 The paper must be typed and be 3 - 5 pages in length. Students will choose one pulmonary disease and discuss etiology, pathophysiology, signs/symptoms and current treatment. The paper must relate normal pulmonary anatomy and physiology to the disease state.  The emphasis of the paper should be the comparison and contrasting of normal anatomy & physiology of the lung and the diseased lung.  The paper will be graded on accuracy, completeness, grammar and syntax


Powerpoint Presentation Guidelines

RSP 282 Assignemnt


1. This is a group project. On the first day of class students will be randomly assigned groups to a group of 2-3 members.

2. Choose a topic by Feb 14th.

            The topic must be pertaining to respiratory care. The topic may be an area that was not covered in any RC class or an area that you wish to expand your knowledge. (If you choose the latter option, be aware that you must really expand the topic.)

            Your group is to research the topic in medical journals, current medical/RC textbooks, or other appropriate areas. Most information should NOT come from a web site.

3. Only one topic per group and topics will be available on a first come first chosen basis. The instructor must approve topics.

4. Students will research their topic and create a power point presentation and present their topic to the class and honored guests. Each person in the group must speak during the presentation. The presentation must include objectives, statistics, pictures, information, references in the Vancouver style and a 5-question quiz based on the objectives. The presentation should be 15 minutes long and not greater than 20 minutes.

5. The presentation is due on April 25th at 12:30 pm. If the presentation is not handed in and presented, there is no opportunity for a make up and the group will receive a zero for the project.

6. The target audience for your presentation is health care professionals who may not be familiar with our respiratory terminology.

7. Your PowerPoint presentation must be your own. If the group uses a presentation from a manufacturer or from another source, that is not originally their own; the presentation will earn a “0”. This will be considered plagiarism.

8. The instructor, using the forms on page 9-10 will grade the presentations. Your classmates will give you feedback using the same forms.

9. A handout must be provided and it must be typed. You may chose one of the following options for your handout:

  • Send it to all students and instructor via e-mail via blackboard.
  • Have the presentation uploaded to BB by sending it to the instructor no later than the Friday at noon before the presentation. Students will be responsible for downloading and/or printing their own copies.
  • Hand in their presentation the week before it is due so instructor can provide copies.
  • Copy the presentation yourself and hand it out the day of the presentation.

10. The Most Frequently Asked Question About References – What should I reference?

•      Direct quotes

•      Statistics

•      Another author, researcher’s research

•      Tables or graphs taken from somewhere other than your own personal research or imagination

•      Pictures or photos, other than ones you personally took

•      Information someone might want to investigate further (i.e. books published, other articles published, other research that supports your topic…)

•      Pictures, statistics, etc. on your presentations or on your handouts



MCC Respiratory Care Program

Guidelines for Evaluation of Power Point Presentation












Recent, Significant, Innovative, Applicable




Chosen by Feb 14








Objectives clearly written




Provided significant data




Covered topic in significant depth




Provided accurate information




Provided clinical applications




Objectively evaluated topic




Used medical language








Followed logical sequence




Had adequate illustrations








Slides outlined major points




Approximately 15 minute duration




Provided to audience








Audience interaction




Eye contact




Spoke loudly and clearly








Avoided “ah” & other fillers




Encouraged questions




Dressed professionally








Provided to audience




References peer reviewed & recent




Adequate data provided




Noted any conflict of interest








Related to objectives




Clearly written




Covered important points




Variety of cognitive levels tested (recall; application; analysis)



Total Earned





Presentation Evaluation

Part 1: Teaching Effectiveness

Please rate the teaching effectiveness of the presenters using the scale below:

1 = Poor       2 = Fair       3 = Good       4 = Excellent       5  = Superior



Teaching Effectiveness





Audio Visual








Part 2: Your Achievement of Educational Objectives

Please rate the degree to which you believe you achieved the educational objectives for each session by placing a check mark in the appropriate box corresponding to each:



I achieved this activity’s educational objectives

Topic / Presenter

Strongly Agree



Strongly Disagree









The information below is required by the AARC when applying to award CRCE credits for continuing education.   Complete the information for your group’s in-class presentation.

Primary Program Planner (person who leads the planning for this program)

Name and Credentials: _____________________________________________

Program Information

Title of Program: ___________________________________________________


The purpose is a statement of intent that describes how the activity will improve the attendee’s contributions to quality healthcare and his/her pursuits of professional goals

Describe the purpose of the program:___________________________________________



Program Objectives

List each objective in learner oriented/measurable terms, which consists of one action or outcome per objective. (You must provide 3-4 objectives)

1. ___________________________________________________________________________



2. ____________________________________________________________________________



3. ____________________________________________________________________________