NAME-YEAR SYSTEM OF CITATION used in Biology
(Council of Science Editors (CSE) 2006)
Whenever you refer to anything in writing that is another person’s work or ideas you must first paraphrase the information (write it over in your own words) and then give credit to the author by citing the source of information. Not citing your sources is plagiarism. You must cite sources 2 ways using the Name-Year System of Citation:
I. PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS are in the body of the paper either at the end of the sentence in which the information is mentioned or within the sentence itself. If everything in one paragraph is from the same source you may cite that source once at the end of that paragraph.
EXAMPLES OF PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS
Can be placed at the end of the sentence:
EXAMPLE: Blood vessels were found to be constricted (Smith 2007).
EXAMPLE: Many stomata are found on leaf surfaces (Smith and Brown 1992).
EXAMPLE: Dozens of chloroplasts were within each leaf (Smith and others 1998).
OR Dozens of chloroplasts were within each leaf (Smith et al. 1998).
EXAMPLE: Hearts were enlarged (<http://www.who.int/healthinfo/index.html >).
OR parenthetical citations can be placed within the sentence as shown here:
EXAMPLES: According to Smith (1999) the location of the mitochondria in . . .
Smith and Brown (1992) found that…
EXAMPLE: … as found by The Frog Conservancy (1995) tree frogs in Texas are. . .
II. REFERENCE section at the end of the paper contains the full citation, providing all the information necessary for an individual to locate that source
First author’s last name First two initials, Subsequent author’s last names and initials separated by commas. Year of Publication. Article title. Journal name (often abbreviated) Volume number (issue number): inclusive pages.
EXAMPLE with one author:
Sachar DB. 1994. Budesonide for inflammatory bowel disease: is it a magic bullet? N Engl J Med 331 (251):873-4.
EXAMPLE with two or more authors:
Binder V, Hendriksen C, Kreiner S. 1985. Prognosis in Crohn’s disease based on results from a regional patient group from the county of Copenhagen. Gut 26:146-50.
EXAMPLE with organization as author:
[CDFG] California Department of Fish and Game. 2002. Guidelines for evaluating marine protected areas. Journal of Fishery Science 25(2):100-122.
First author’s or editor’s last name First initials, Subsequent author’s or editors’ names separated by commas. Year of publication. Title of book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s name.
Starr C, Taggart R. 2006. Biology: the Unity and Diversity of Life 11th ed. Belmont CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Unpublished Laboratory Exercise:
Author (Institution if author is unknown) Year. Title of lab exercise. Course name, Department, College or University name.
Smith J. 2008. Microorganism Lab. General Biology I, Biology Department, Manchester Community College.
Electronic Journal Articles (that are NOT in print form only available electronically):
Provide same information and format as provided for a printed journal article as shown previously. If an article is ONLY available online (not in print form) then also add: <URL> Accessed Year Month day. NOTE: most journal articles you will access electronically are also in print form.
Parker ET, Cleaves HJ, Dworkin JP, Glavin DP, Callahan M, Aubrey A, Lazcano A, Bada JL. 2011. Primordial synthesis of amines and amino acids in a 1958 Miller H2S-rich spark discharge experiment. PNAS 108(14): 5526-5531. <http://www.pnas.org/content/108/14/5526.full> Accessed 2013 February 2.
Internet sources: Your instructor may or may not allow you to use websites. Check with your instructor if you’re not sure! Internet sources should have an author and date. If there is no author listed use the name of the organization as the author (example: Center for Disease Control)
Authors last name & initials. Year of publication. Title. Publisher of site. <URL> Year and month accessed.
Meyer JR. 2006. Insect Physiology: Respiratory System. North Carolina State University <http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/tutorial/respire.html > Accessed 2010 May.
Important note about URL’s: DO NOT provide a URL link that goes through my commnet! It will only work for you, not me! Instead use a permalink that brings anyone to that web page and that does not change. If not sure where to find the permalink, ask a librarian!
Plagiarism is simply using someone's work and not
acknowledging or giving credit to the original author(s).
I am plagiarizing if I:
For more information regarding Plagiarism visit:
Learn to be critical thinkers. When conducting research on the World Wide Web, evaluate the sites you are viewing using the criteria found in this section.
· ACCURACY Anyone can publish information on the web. The information may or may not be accurate. Most web sites are not verified by editors and fact checkers. Look for e-mail, contact address and phone numbers. You want to find out if the author is qualified to write the web page.
· AUTHORITY Web sites should enable the researcher to find out about the authors. Look for names, where they work, credentials, addresses, and e-mail addresses. Look for the URL domain. Is the author affiliated with an educational institution (edu), a government agency (gov), an organization (org), or a commercial site (com)? Do the authors/publishers list their qualifications?
· OBJECTIVITY Are the goals and aims of the persons or groups responsible for the web site clearly stated? Is the group/person/organization legitimate? Some sites are thinly disguised commercials or opinion pages. Does the author express his/her opinions? Ask yourself why the page was written and for whom.
· CURRENCY Dates are not usually included on web pages. Check for dead links and outdated information. If you see a date listed, it may be the date of posting or the date of revision.
· COVERAGE Are you getting all the information this site has to offer? Do you need specialized software to access the information? Are you required to pay a fee to access the information? Is the content of the web page balanced with text and graphics? Are links relevant to the document’s content? Good web sites should contain a statement explaining or summarizing topics covered on the site.
PC 7/98, 1/06