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ECE 231 Early Language & Literacy Experiences

Quick Examples

Here are a few quick examples of the kinds of sources you are most likely to encounter and need to cite in your research. Please refer to the "APA Citation Guide" or the Purdue Owl "APA Style Guide" provided in this LibGuide for more examples. If your citation is more than a single line, any additional lines should be indented .5 inches.


Book (Single author):

Author's last name, First name initial. Middle name initial. (publication year ). Title of the book: Subtitle of the book. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Zautra, A. (2003). Emotions, stress, and health. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Book (Two authors):

Author's last name, First name initial. Middle name initial. & Author's last name, First name initial. Middle name initial. (publication year ).Title of the book: Subtitle of the book. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Baumgart, N., & Kroll, L. (2018). STEAM concepts for infants and toddlers. St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press.

Newspaper Article

Author's last name, First name initial. Middle name initial. (year, Month day). Article title. Newspaper Title, page.

Hoffman, J. (2015, Oct 05). Four-legged roommates help with the stresses of campus life. New York Times, p. A1.


Journal Article (Single author):

Note: Include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) at the end, if available.

Author's last name, First name initial. Middle initial. (publication year). Title of the article: Subtitle of the article. Title of the Journal volume number (issue number), pages. http://www.xxxxxx 

Timmons, K. (2018). Educator expectations in full-day kindergarten: Comparing the factors that contribute to the formation of early childhood educator and teacher expectations. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46(6), 613–628.

Journal Article (Two authors)

Mitchell, M. C., & Hogan, L. (2019). Flipping the script: Educators driving public policy. Young Children 74(4).


Note: Include a retrieval date when the page's content is likely to change over time.

Author. (Date of publication). Title of webpage/article. Retrieved [date], from https://www.xxxxxx

American Psychological Association. (2013). How stress affects your health. Retrieved March 6, 2020, from


Corporate Author, Government Report Retrieved Online:

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Subtitle of work (Report No. xxx). URL

Carso, E. A. (2016). Prisoners in 2015 (NCJ Report No. 250229).

What is Plagiarism?

What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism is simply using someone's work and not acknowledging or giving credit to the original author(s).

I am plagiarizing if I:

  • Intentionally duplicate or copy another person's work including copying directly from an article, book, or website
  • Copy another student's assignment(s)
  • Paraphrase another person's work, while making only minor changes and not changing the meaning or ideas presented by the original author(s)
  • Copy sections of another person's work and piece these sections together to create a new whole
  • Turn in an assignment that has been previously submitted for assessment and then take credit for the assignment
  • Turn in an assignment as independent work when the assignment was produced in whole or part in collusion with another student(s), tutor(s), or person(s)

For more information regarding Plagiarism visit: